Huria Journal

OUT, Open University of Tanzania (2010) Huria Journal. Huria Journal, VIII (1). pp. 1-181. ISSN 0856 6739

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Abstract

Editorial Esteemed readers I cordially invite you to peruse Volume VIII August, 2010 of Huria Journal. In this issue, I wish to commend and appreciate the work done by authors, reviewers and the editorial part, whose collaboration has resulted in the production of nine good papers. In the current issue Ngaruko tries to apply transaction cost economics to identify and quantify transaction costs and their impact on choice by principal agrocredit suppliers of the most efficient transaction contractual arrangements. Based on information from the sample of 78 agrocredit transaction contracts in Kibondo District in the Western part of Tanzania, he applied both qualitative and quantitative analytical tools to first describe principal suppliers and institutional arrangements through which farmers access agrocredit, second to identify and quantify determinants of transaction costs involved in credit supply arrangements to smallholder farmers, and third to examine the relationship between transactions cost determinants and choice of agrocredit transaction arrangements. The author observes that contractual transaction arrangements (CTAs) involving intermediaries were found to have higher mean transaction costs compared to direct transaction arrangements; and the logics for negotiation and enforcement costs were more significant in determining probability that private principal suppliers used CTAs with intermediaries than those without intermediaries. Kyando in his article describes the education policy dialogue in the context of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) involvement in Education for All) EFA process. He divides the article into three sections: The first is an introduction to the study, describing methodological issues and the rationale behind this study. The second section aims at connecting issues that respondents of this study brought up to the issues addresses by documents that were used in this study as reference and /or even previous studies related to this study. In a way of concluding the study, the last part, section highlights matters that indicate the state of CSOs linkage / involvement in policy dialogue. It ends by indicating ways forward for better linkages that are in the future. The picture for future CSOs involvement is made as broader as possible to include all key partners in policy processes. The article by Gwalema investigates the extent of food insecurity and its linkage to poverty in Kigoma Region after sampling three villages: Kitahana, Kalinzi and Mwali. Impact of poverty on sustainable land management, extent of the use of improved techniques of agriculture, level of accessibility of smallholder farmers to agricultural extension services, and the effect of women’s heavy workload on food availability and income in the three villages were assessed. It was observed that about 88% of the sampled households faced intermittent food insecurity particularly in Kalinzi and Kitahama villages; and it was further noted that reasons for food insecurity included adverse weather changes, soil infertility, and lack of farm inputs, shortage of labour, transportation problems, and the use of poor agricultural practices. The use of better farm implements and modern agricultural practices are recommended to as a means of improving food production in the region. Using discourse from written texts representing information about “New Information Communication Technologies (NICTs) in distance education (DE) in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA)” the author (Mushi) shows how texts/discourse may be used to marginalize people who have systematically been made powerless. She provides practical examples of written text extracts, analyses the extracts using CDA and critically interprets the texts to show how CDA may be employed as a means to decolonize minds of peoples in Sub-Saharan Africa. CDA is represented to have the potency to open up for critical conceptualization of the real world as presented in written texts which influence how people live and act. In the context of this paper discourse is considered a social practice that influences other forms of social practices. In a very articulated way, Nihuka analyses the potentials of technologies in facilitating course delivery and students support at the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) with a population exceeding 35,000 students spread in 25 Regional Centres. He therefore examines students’ knowledge and skills on computer and Internet as well as students’ perceptions regarding the benefits of using technologies in Open and Distance Learning institutions like the OUT. The author reports that over 50% of interviewed students have knowledge of computers (word processing: 76.9%, e-mail: 72.0%; sending attachments: 57.2%, and searching information in the internet: 71%), but only few proportion of them have knowledge of database (spreadsheets: 29.3%), and Power point presentations (23.1%). Nihuka urges that the integration of e-learning at The Open University of Tanzania is necessary and efforts should be made to adequately train students on the usage of computers and internet for successful e-learning integration. In his interesting article, Mnyanyi tries to demonstrate how participation in teaching and learning activities is viewed by teachers and pupils with and without disabilities in Primary Schools. He carried his research in three primary schools accommodating pupils with disabilities in ordinary classes, 8 teachers, 81 pupils with disabilities and 90 pupils without disabilities. He observed that there are qualitative differences in views regarding participation among pupils and among teachers, concluding that both teachers and pupils agree that resources influence participation in classroom activities among pupils with and without disabilities. The article by Kitula gives a reflection on the integration of gender in pro-poor policies and initiative situations in Tanzania. She reiterates that gender issues are considered peripheral in policies related to budgeting, structural reforms, development programmes both in governments and private sectors. The author goes on with a recommendation that for a poor or developing country like Tanzania, it is important to make drastic changes in development strategies such that policy makers/implementers, planners, advocacy groups and the likes are sensitized on gender mainstreaming concepts so as to empower women to enable them liberate themselves Article by Okopi highlights the aim of learner support services in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) education, taking the example of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). The manuscript analyses how far NOUN has gone in providing interactive support services at the study centres, place of service delivery, staff responsible for providing the services, delivery target, customers, facilities and equipment at the study centres, schools and programmes, mode of service delivery, problems militating against effective support service delivery, how to measure performance in support service delivery and the way forward. Shungu and Mbwette underscore the impacts and achievements of the Community Economic Development Programme (CED) on the ongoing reform programmes in the central and local governments, taking as case examples, seven Councils (Kilombero, Tandahimba, Mbozi, Babati, Kilwa and Mbeya). The findings of the study support the contention that the ongoing reform programmes in the central and local government require some intervention by other stake holders in as far as capacity building and training is concerned. The study also underscores the levels attained in democratization governance, empowerment and the degree of participatory practices all of which are objectives of the reforms. Prof. M.D. Varisanga Editor-in-Chief Huria Journal

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Huria Journal > Huria Journal
Divisions: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Depositing User: Mr. Administrator OUT
Date Deposited: 13 Sep 2011 07:34
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2013 09:39
URI: http://repository.out.ac.tz/id/eprint/131

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