Assessment of the Influence of Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors on Malaria Transmission in Ngoma District, Rwanda

Kamuhanda, James Kant (2020) Assessment of the Influence of Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors on Malaria Transmission in Ngoma District, Rwanda. ["eprint_fieldopt_thesis_type_phd" not defined] thesis, The Open University of Tanzania.

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Malaria continues to remain a major health problem in Ngoma district and Rwanda at large despite of various measures that have been geared towards treatment and control of the disease. The present study was aimed at determining the influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on malaria transmission in Ngoma district, Rwanda. A cross-section survey employing Questionnaires, observation and interviews were used to collect primary data while secondary data on seasonality of malaria transmission were collected from published and unpublished hospital reports and nearby weather station. The results showed that hospital admission rates for malaria in adults and children was highest in 2014 at 51.0% and 64.6%, respectively. Hospital admission rates in adults was lowest in 2016 at 18.5% and lowest in children in 2017 at 13.2%. There was a positive relationship between malaria admission rates and rainfall and temperature (p = 0.001). The most appreciated night-time outdoor activities were evening parties (Chi-squared value 184.068, p = 0.000) where it is ranked by 3.57). The main reason for not owning the LLINs was that the LLINs were not available as noted by 26.0% (p = 0.000). Irrigation for Rice cultivation and slow flowing fresh water from the extensive anastomosis of tributaries of River Kagera were the most dominant malaria transmission factor (66.1%, p = 0.000). Malaria transmission was significantly associated with non-windows screening (92.9%, p = 0.000). General sanitation is effective in reducing malaria transmission (55.9%). Livestock keeping had a significant impact on malaria transmission increase (38.6%) (Chi-square: 81.506, Std. Dev = 0.489 and p = 0.000) due to increasing mosquitoes density. This study validates anthropogenic factors notably rice farming, poor housing, inappropriate use of bed nets, night parties, irrigation agriculture and improper waste management as the main malaria causing factors in Ngoma district in Rwanda.

Item Type: Thesis (["eprint_fieldopt_thesis_type_phd" not defined])
Subjects: 600 Technology > 600 Technology (Applied sciences)
Divisions: Faculty of Sciences Technology and Environmental Studies > Department of Environmental Studies
Depositing User: Mr. Administrator OUT
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2021 07:45
Last Modified: 22 Sep 2021 07:45

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